The zero-one laws of Kolmogorov and Hewitt–Savage in categorical probability



This is a post about my paper The zero-one laws of Kolmogorov and Hewitt-Savage in categorical probability, joint with Tobias Fritz. This is a “companion piece” where I try to explain those ideas in a more understandable language. There are essentially three ideas in this paper:

In this post, I’ll try to give an accessible take on these ideas. I’ll assume some familiarity with category theory, and a very small amount of familiarity with probability theory

What do you mean, “synthetic probability theory”

Synthetic vs analytic

(This is a weird rambly section. Feel free to skip it)

Think about plane geometry for a moment. Let’s contrast two approaches: In the “Euclidean” approach, we work without any reference to what a point, a line, and so on, is1. We simply have certain axioms which relate lines and points, certain properties (like congruence) which things can have or not have, and so on. We could also call this approach formal, or maybe syntactical. We can contrast this with how plane geometry might be treated in the modern world:

and so on. Here a point is really a particular thing, so is a line, and the statement “The angle \(ABC\) equals the angle \(CBD\)” is defined in terms of the things that \(A,B,C,D\) are, rather than being a more or less irreducible notion. We call such an approach analytical. Another way of looking at it is that Euclidean geometry admits several distinct models (particularly if we abandon certain axioms, e.g. the parallel postulate). On the other hand, the analytical approach of \(\mathbb{R}^2\) augmented with some structure is a specific model.

Markov categories

The classical approach to probability theory is analytical - a probability space \((\Omega,\Sigma,P)\) is a specific thing with a specific structure. We want to contrast this to a synthetic approach to probability theory. One “model” of our synthetic approach will be “classical probability theory”, i.e measures and \(\sigma\) algebras. Another model will be given by “possibility theory”, where each outcome either happens or doesn’t happen. And there are many other exoctic models like that.

This approach is called Markov categories. It is a notion which has been developed by several different authors under different names - see the paper by Fritz above for a review of the literature (and a much more in-depth treatment of Markov categories).

A Markov category is a symmetric monoidal category \((\mathsf{C},\otimes,I)\), where the monoidal unit is terminal, where each object \(X \in \mathsf{C}\) carries a distinguished cocommutative comonoid structure \((\operatorname{copy}_X: X \to X \otimes X, \operatorname{del}_X: X \to I)\), and such that the symmetric monoidal structure isomorphisms are homomorphisms2. See Tobias’ paper for an unpacking of this definition.

The interpretation of a Markov category is that the objects are “spaces” that our random variables can take values in, and the maps are “stochastic processes” or “kernels”, i.e functions which produce their output somewhat randomly. The tensor product of two objects \(X \otimes Y\) is the “product space” where points are pairs of points \((x,y)\) - but note that this is not a product in the categorical sense, since, give a random map \(A \to X \otimes Y\), we can not in general recover it from the “marginals” or “projections” \(A \to X\) and \(A \to Y\). This is because the random values of \(X\) and \(Y\) may be dependent. On the other hand, we do have “diagonal” maps \(X \to X \otimes X\) - which non-randomly send \(x\) to \((x,x)\) - and a “projection” map \(X \to I\), which is actually unique (there is precisely one way to randomly generate an element of the one-point space).

A map \(I \to X\) is called a distribution on \(X\), and should be thought of as the abstract version of a probability measure. For instance, if \(P:I \to X\) is a distribution, and \(f: X \to Y\) is a map, then we can make sense of this diagram:

it is the distribution on \(X \otimes Y\) where \(x \in X\) is sampled according to \(\psi\), then \(y \in Y\) is sampled according to \(f(x)\). Note the bullet which denotes the copying operator.

We can define a few different standard terms from probability theory in this context.


Given a map \(f: A \to X \otimes Y\), we can ask whether \(X,Y\) are /independent given \(A\) /. The intuition here is that given some \(a \in A\), if I sample \((x,y)\) from \(f(a)\) and tell you what the \(x\) was, that gives you no information about the \(y\) (given that you know what the \(a\) was). In diagram form, this looks like this:

The basic idea here is that it makes no difference whether we generate \((x,y)\) together in one go, or separately (using the same \(a\)).


A map \(f: A \to B\) is deterministic if we have this equality:

This means if we run \(f\) twice with the same \(a \in A\), we get the same \(b \in B\) out. This is a reasonable definition of “deterministic”.

Note that in both these cases, the existence of the comonoid structure is exactly what we needed to make sense of the probabilistic notion.


For (many) more examples, see Tobias’ paper.

Infinite tensor products

Most theorems in probability theory involve infinite families of variables. To make sense of that in our framework, we need to make sense of “distributions on infinite product spaces”, which means we need a notion of “infinite tensor product”. The definition goes like this: Let \(\{X_j\}_{j \in J}\) be a collection of objects in a markov category \(\mathsf{C}\). For each finite subset \(F \subset J\), we can make sense of the tensor product \(\bigotimes_{j \in F} X_j\)3. Since the tensor unit is terminal, we have natural maps \(\bigotimes_{J \in F’} X_j \to \bigotimes_{j \in F} X_j\) for each inclusion of finite sets \(F \subset F’\). Then we can ask for a cofiltered limit of this system: \[\lim_{F \subset J} \bigotimes_{j \in F} X_j\] This is a reasonable definition of “infinite tensor product”, which we can denote \(\bigotimes_{j \in J} X_j\) However, it turns out we need one more condition. The issue is that in a Markov category, having an object defined up to isomorphism is not always good enough - we want it up to deterministic isomorphism, so that the comonoid structure is determined as well. The natural condition to add to make sure we pick the “right” limit is that each of the projections \(\bigotimes_{j \in J} X_j \to \bigotimes_{j \in F} X_j\), for each finite subset, is deterministic. Such an infinite tensor product, we called a Kolmogorov product.

Kolmogorov’s Zero-One Theorem, abstractly

With this setup, it turns out it’s very easy to prove an abstract version of Kolmogorov’s Zero-One Law. Informally, the content of the law is this: suppose you have a family \((X_n)\) of independent random variables, and some event \(A\) which is determined by these variables, but is independent of any finite subset of them. Then \(P(A) \in \{0,1\}\).

Here is our abstract version: Let \((X_j)_{j \in J}\) be objects so that the Kolmogorov product \(\bigotimes_{j \in J} X_j\) exists. Let \(p: A \to \bigotimes_{j \in J} X_j\) be a map, and \(s : \bigotimes_{j \in J} X_j \to T\) be a deterministic map. Suppose \(p\) displays the conditional independence of the \(X_j\) given \(A\), and that for every finite \(F \subset J\), the joint distribution

displays the independence of \(X_F\) and \(T\) given \(A\). (Here \(X_F = \bigotimes_{j \in F} X_j\)). Then the composite \(sp : A \to T\) is deterministic.

I will sketch the proof (see the paper for details). Essentially, we first prove that \(T\) is independent of all the \(X_j\), not just the finite subsets. To see this, we note that the definition of independence is comparing two maps into \(T \otimes \bigotimes_{j\in J} X_j\). This is a limit, so it’s enough to show that all the component maps, which are the maps for finite \(F \subset J\), agree - this is true by definition. Now it follows by a string diagram manipulation that \(sp\) satisfies the definition of determinism:

This concludes the proof.

To recover the classical Kolmogorov 0-1 law, we must do a little bit of technical work. We work in the Markov category \(\mathsf{BorelStoch}\) of standard Borel spaces. This Markov category has countable Kolmogorov products4. We let \(A = *\) and let our \(X_j\) be the spaces that the variables \(X_j\) from the theorem take values in. We let the map \(p\) give the joint distribution of the variables. We let \(T = \{0,1\}\), and we let \(s\) be the indicator for the event. Then the theorem says that the composite \(sp\) is deterministic. So the probability that \(sp\) is \(1\), which is the probability that the event happens, is either zero or one.

  1. Euclid actually did try to define notions like lines, points, etc, but we’re gonna use his name anyways ↩︎

  2. Note that we’re not assuming all maps, or even all isomorphisms, are homomorphic. This makes Markov categories an evil notion ↩︎

  3. I am handwaving some non-issues with regards to non-strictness here ↩︎

  4. It turns out that proving this is significantly harder than proving the abstract theorem, once you have the setup ↩︎